UPSC IFS Exam Zoology Syllabus

UPSC IFS Exam Zoology Syllabus Paper - 1 Section-A 1. Non-chordata and chordata: (a) Classification and relationship of various phyla up- to sub-classes; Acoelomata and Coelomata; Protostomes and Deuterostomes, Bilateralia and Radiata; Status of Protista, Parazoa, Onychophora and Hemichordata; Symmetry.…
UPSC IFS Exam Zoology Syllabus

Paper – 1
1. Non-chordata and chordata: (a) Classification and relationship of various phyla up- to sub-classes; Acoelomata and Coelomata; Protostomes and Deuterostomes, Bilateralia and Radiata; Status of Protista, Parazoa, Onychophora and Hemichordata; Symmetry.
(b) Protozoa: Locomotion, nutrition, reproduction; evolution of sex; general features and life history of Paramaecium, Monocystis, Plasmodium and Leisismania.
(c) Porifera: Skeleton, canal system and reproduction.
(d) Coelenterata: Polymorphism, defensive structures and their mechanism; coral reefs and their formation; metagenesis; general features and life history of Obelia and Aurelia.
(e) Platyhelminthes: Parasitic adaptation; general features and life history of Fasciola and Taenia and their relation to man.
(f) Nemathelminthes: General features, life history and parasitic adaptation of Ascaris; nemathelminths in relation to man.
(g) Annelida: Coelom and metamerism; modes of life in polychaetes; general features and life history of nereis (Neanthes), earthworm (Pheretima) and leach (Hirundaria).
(h) Arthropoda: Larval forms and parasitism in Crustacea; vision and respiration in arthropods (prawn, cockroach and scorpion); modification of mouth parts in insects (cockroach, mosquito, housefly, honey bee and butterfly); metamorphosis in insects and its hormonal regulation; social organization in insects (termites and honey bees).
(i) Mollusca: Feeding, respiration, locomotion, shell diversity; general features and life history of Lamellidens, Pila and Sepia, torsion and detorsion in gastropods.
(j) Echinodermata: Feeding respiration, locomotion larval forms; general features and life history of Asterias.
(k) Protochordata: Origin of chordates; general features and life history of
Branchiostoma and Herdamania.
(l) Pisces: Scales, respiration, locomotion, migration.
(m) Amphibia: Origin of tetrapods; parental care, paedomorphosis.
(n) Reptilia: Origin of reptiles; skull types; status of Sphenodon and crocodiles.
(o) Aves: Origin of birds; flight adaptation, migration.
(p) Mammalia: Origin of mammals; dentition; general features of egglaying mammals, pouchedmammals, aquatic mammals and primates; endocrine glands and other hormone producing structures (pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, pancreas, gonads) and their inter relationships.
(q) Comparative functional anatomy of various systems of vertebrates(integument and its derivatives, endoskeleton, locomotory organs digestive system, respiratory system, circulatory system including heart and aortic arches; urino-genital system, brain and sense organs (eye and ear).
I. Ecology:
(a) Biosphere: Biogeochemical cycles, green-houses effect, ozone layer and its impact; ecological succession, biomes and ecotones.
(b) Population, characteristics, population dynamics, population stabilization.
(c) Conservation of natural resources mineral mining, fisheries, acquaculture; forestry; grassland; wildlife (Project Tiger); sustainable production in agriculture-integrated pest management.
(d) Environmental biodegradation; pollution and its impact on biosphere and its prevention.
II. Ethology:
(a) Behaviour: Sensory filtering, responsiveness, sign stimuli, learning, instinct, habituation, conditioning, imprinting.
(b) Role of hormones in drive; role of pheromones in alarm spreading; crypsis, predator detection, predator tactics, social behaviour in insects and primates, courtship (Drosophila, 3-spine stickleback and birds).
(c) Orientation, navigation, homing; biological rhythms; biological clock, tidal, seasonal and circadian rhythms.
(d) Methods of studying animal behaviour.
III. Economic Zoology:
(a) Apiculture, sericulture, lac culture, carp culture, pearl culture, prawn culture.
(b) Major infectious and communicable diseases (small pox, plague, malaria, tuberculosis, cholera and AIDS) their vectors, pathogens and prevention.
(c) Cattle and livestock diseases, their pathogens (helminths) and vectors (ticks, mites, Tabanus, Stomoxys)
(d) Pests of sugar cane (Pyrilla perpusiella), oil seed (Achaea Janata) and rice (Sitophilus oryzae).
IV. Biostatistics: Designing of experiments; null hypothesis; correlation, regression, distribution and measure of central tendency, chi square, student t-test, F-test (one-way & two-way F-test)
V. Instrumental methods:
(a) Spectrophotometry, flame photometry, Geiger-Muller counter, scintillation counting.
(b) Electron microscopy (TEM, SEM).
Paper – II
I. Cell Biology:
(a) Structure and function of cell and its organelles (nucleus, plasma membrane, mitochondria, Golgibodies, endoplasmic reticulum, ribosomes and lysosomes), cell division (mitosis and meiosis), mitotic spindle and mitotic apparatus, chromosome movement.
(b) Watson-Crick model of DNA, replication of DNA, protein synthesis, transcription and transcription factors.
II. Genetics:
(a) Gene structure and functions; genetic code.
(b) Sex chromosomes and sex determination in Drosophilla, nematodes and man.
(c) Mendel’s laws of inheritance, recombination, linkage, linkage-maps, multiple alleles, cistron concept; genetics of blood groups.
(d) Mutations and mutagenesis: radiation and chemical.
(e) Cloning technology, plasmids and cosmids as vectors, transgenics, transposons, DNA sequence cloning and whole animal cloning (Principles and methodology).
(f) Regulation and gene expression inpro-and eukaryotes.
(g) Signal transduction; pedigreeanalysis; congenital diseases in man.
(h) Human genome mapping; DNA finger-printing.
III. Evolution:
(a) Origin of life.
(b) Natural selection, role of mutation in evolution, mimicry, variation, isolation, speciation.
(c) Fossils and fossilization; evolution of horse, elephant and man.
(d) Hardy-Weinberg law, causes of change in gene frequency.
(e) Continental drift and distribution of animals.
IV. Systematics:
(a) Zoological nomenclature; international code; cladistics.
I. Biochemistry:
(a) Structure and role of carbohydrates, fats, lipids, proteins, aminoacids, nucleic acids; saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, cholesterol.
(b) Glycolysis and Krebs cycle, oxidation and reduction, oxidative phosphorylation; energy conservation and release, ATP, cyclic AMP – its structure and role.
(c) Hormone classification (steroid and peptide hormones), biosynthesis and function.
(d) Enzymes: types and mechanisms of action; immunoglobulin and immunity; vitamins and co-enzymes.
(e) Bioenergetics.
II Physiology (with special reference to mammals):
(a) Composition and constituents of blood; blood groups and Rh factor in man; coagulation, factors and mechanism of coagulation; acid-base balance, thermo regulation.
(b) Oxygen and carbon dioxide transport; haemoglobin: constituents and role in regulation.
(c) Nutritive requirements; role of salivary glands, liver, pancreas and intestinal glands in digestion and absorption.
(d) Excretory products; nephron and regulation of urine formation; osmoregulation.
(e) Types of muscles, mechanism of contraction of skeletal muscles.
(f) Neuron, nerve impulse-its conduction and synaptic transmission; neurotransmitters.
(g) Vision, hearing and olfaction in man.
(h) Mechanism of hormone action.
(i) Physiology of reproduction, role of hormones and phermones.
III. Developmental Biology:
(a) Differentiation from gamete to neurula stage; dedifferentiation; metaplasia, induction, morphogenesis and morphogen; fate maps of gastrulae in frog and chick; organogenesis of eye and heart, placentation in mammals.
(b) Role of cytoplasm in and genetic control of development; cell lineage; causation of metamorphosis in frog and insects; paedogenesis and neoteny; growth, degrowth and cell death; ageing; blastogenesis; regeneration; teratogenesis; neoplasia.
(c) Invasiveness of placenta; in vitro fertilization; embryo transfer, cloning.
(d) Baer’s law; evo-devo concept.



UPSC IFS Exam Statistics Syllabus

UPSC IFS Exam Statistics Syllabus Paper - I Probability :  Sample space and events probability measure and probability space random variable as a measurable function distribution function of a random variable discrete and continuous-type random variable probability mass function, probability…
UPSC IFS Exam Statistics Syllabus

Paper – I

Probability : 

  • Sample space and events
  • probability measure and probability space
  • random variable as a measurable function
  • distribution function of a random variable
  • discrete and continuous-type random variable
  • probability mass function, probability density function
  • vector-valued random variable
  • marginal and conditional distributions
  • stochastic independence of events and of random variables
  • expectation and moments of a random  variable
  • conditional expectation
  • convergence of a sequence of random variable in distribution in probability
  • pth mean and almost every where
  • criteria and inter-relations
  • Borel-Cantelli lemma
  • Chebyshev’s and Khinchine’s weak laws of large numbers
  • strong law of large numbers and Kolmogorov’s theorems
  • Glivenko-Cantelli theorem
  • probability generating function
  • characteristic function
  • inversion theorem
  • Laplace transform
  • related uniqueness and continuity theorems
  • determination of distribution by its moments
  • Linderberg and Levy forms of central limit theorem
  • standard discrete and continuous probability distributions
  • their interrelations and limiting cases
  • simple properties of finite Markov chains

Statistical Inference : 

  • Consistency
  • Unbiasedness
  • Efficiency
  • Sufficiency
  • minimal sufficiency
  • completeness
  • ancillary statistic
  • factorization theorem
  • exponential family of distribution and its properties
  • uniformly minimum variance unbiased (UMVU) estimation
  • Rao-Blackwell and Lehmann- Scheffe theorems
  • Cramer-Rao inequality for single and several-parameter family of distributions
  • minimum variance bound estimator and its properties
  • modifications and extensions of Cramer-Rao inequality
  • Chapman-Robbins inequality, Bhattacharya’s bounds
  • estimation by methods of moments, maximum likelihood
  • least squares
  • minimum chisquare
  • modified minimum chi-square properties of maximum likelihood
  • other estimators,
  • idea of asymptotic efficiency
  • idea of prior and posterior distributions
  • Bayes
  • estimators
  • Non-randomised and randomised tests
  • critical function
  • MP tests
  • Neyman- Pearson lemma
  • UMP tests, monotone likelihood ratio
  • generalised Neyman- Pearson lemma
  • similar and unbiased tests
  • UMPU tests for single and severalparameter families of distributions
  • likelihood rotates and its large sample properties
  • chi-square goodness of fit test and its asymptotic distribution.
  • Confidence bounds and its relation with tests
  • uniformly most accurate (UMA) and UMA unbiased confidence bounds.
  • Kolmogorov’s test for goodness of fit and its consistency
  • sign test and its optimality
  • Wilcoxon signed-ranks test and its consistency
  • Kolmogorov-Smirnov twosample test
  • run test
  • Wilcoxon-Mann- Whitney test and median test
  • their consistency and asymptotic normality
  • Wald’s SPRT and its properties
  • OC and ASN functions
  • Wald’s fundamental identity
  • sequential estimation

Linear Inference and Multivariate Analysis :

  • Linear statistical models
  • theory of least squares and analysis of variance
  • Gauss- Markoff theory
  • normal equations
  • least squares estimates and their precision
  • test of significance and interval estimates based on least squares theory in one-way,two-way and three-way classified data
  • regression analysis
  • linear regression
  • curvilinear regression and orthogonal polynomials
  • multiple regression
  • multiple and partial correlations
  • regression diagnostics and sensitivity analysis
  • calibration problems
  • estimation of variance and covariance components
  • MINQUE theory
  • multivariate normal distribution
  • Mahalanobis
  • D2 and Hotelling’s T2 statistics and their applications and properties
  • discriminant analysis
  • canonical correlations
  • one-way MANOVA
  • principal component analysis
  • elements of factor analysis

Sampling Theory and Design of Experiments : 

  • An outline of fixed-population and superpopulation approaches,
  • distinctive features of finite population sampling
  • probability sampling designs
  • simple random sampling with and without replacement
  • stratified random sampling
  • systematic sampling and its efficacy for structural populations
  • cluster sampling
  • two-stage and multi-stage sampling
  • ratio and regression
  • methods of estimation involving one or more auxiliary variables
  • two-phase sampling
  • probability proportional to size sampling with and without replacement
  • the Hansen-Hurwitz and the Horvitz-Thompson estimator
  • nonnegative variance estimation with reference to the Horvitz-Thompson estimators non-sampling errors
  • Warner’s randomised response technique for sensitive characteristics.
  • Fixed effects model (two-way classification) random and mixed effects models (two-way classification with equal number of observation per cell), CRD, RBD, LSD and their analysis, incomplete block designs, concepts of orthogonality and balance, BIBD, missing plot technique, factorial designs: 2n, 32 and 33, confounding in factorial experiments, splitplot and simple lattice designs.


Paper – II

  1. Industrial Statistics: 
  • Process and product control
  • general theory of control charts
  • different types of control charts for variables and attributes, X, R, s, p, np and c charts
  • cumulative sum chart
  • V-mask
  • single, double, multiple and sequential sampling plans for attributes
  • OC, ASN, AQQ and ATI curves
  • concepts of producer’s and consumer’s risks
  • AQL
  • LTPD and AOQL
  • sampling plans for variables
  • use of Dodge-Roming and Military Standard tables
  • Concepts of reliability
  • maintainability and availability
  • reliability of series and parallel systems and other simple configurations
  • renewal density and renewal function
  • survival models (exponential, Weibull, lognormal, Rayleigh, and bath-tub)
  • different types of redundancy and use of redundancy in reliability improvement
  • Problems in lifetesting censored and truncated experiments for exponential models.
  1. Optimization Techniques:
  • Different types of models in Operational Research
  • their construction and general methods of solution
  • simulation and Monte-Carlo methods
  • the structure and formulation of linear programming (LP) problem
  • simple LP model and its graphical solution
  • the simplex procedure
  • the two-phase method and the Mtechnique with artificial variables
  • the duality theory of LP and its economic interpretation, sensitivity analysis, transportation and assignment problems
  • rectangular games
  • two-person zero- sum games
  • method of solution (graphical and algebraic).
  • Replacement of failing or deteriorating items
  • group and individual replacement policies
  • concept of scientific inventory management
  • analytical structure of inventory problems
  • simple models with deterministic and stochastic demand with and without lead time
  • storage models with particular reference to dam type.
  • Homogeneous discrete-time Markov chains
  • transition probability matrix
  • classification of states and ergodic theorems
  • homogeneous continuoustime Markov chains
  • Poisson process
  • elements of queuing theory
  • M/M/1, M/M/K, G/M/1 and M/G/1 queues
  • Solution of statistical problems on computers using well-known statistical software packages like SPSS.

Paper III

Quantitative Economics and Official Statistics :

  • Determination of trend, seasonal and cyclical components,
  • Box-Jenkins method
  • tests for stationery of series
  • ARIMA models and determination of orders of autoregressive and moving average components, forecasting.
  • Commonly used index numbers
  • Laspeyre’s, Paashe’s and Fisher’s ideal Index numbers
  • chain-base index numbers
  • uses and limitations of index number
  • index number of wholesale prices
  • consumer price index number
  • index numbers of agricultural and industrial production
  • test for index numbers like proportionality test
  • timereversal test
  • factor-reversal test
  • circular test and dimensional invariance test
  • General linear model
  • ordinary least squares and generalised least squares methods of estimation
  • problem of multicollinearity
  • consequences and solutions of multi-collinearity
  • autocorrelation and its consequences
  • heteroscedasticity of disturbances and its testing
  • test for independence of disturbances
  • Zellner’s seemingly unrelated regression equation model and its estimation
  • concept ofstructure and model for simultaneousequations
  • problem of identification-rank and order conditions of identifiability
  • twostageleast squares method of estimation
  • Present official statistical system in India relating to population
  • Agriculture
  • industrial production
  • trade and prices
  • methods of collection of official statistics
  • their reliability and limitation and the principal publications containing such statistics various official agencies responsible for data collection and their main functions.
  1. Demography and Psychometry : 
  • Demographic data from census, registration
  • NSS and other surveys, and their limitation and uses
  • Definition
  • construction and uses of vital rates and ratios
  • measures of fertility
  • reproduction rates, morbidity rate
  • standardized death rate
  • complete and abridged life tables
  • construction of life tables from vital statistics and census returns
  • uses of life tables
  • logistic and other population growth curve
  • fitting a logistic curve
  • population projection
  • stable population theory
  • uses of stable population
  • quasi-stable population techniques in estimation of demographic parameters
  • morbidity and its measurement
  • standard classification by cause of death
  • health surveys and use of hospital statistics.
  • Method of standardisation of scales and tests
  • Z-scores, standard scores
  • Tscores, percentile scores
  • intelligence quotient and its measurement and uses
  • validity of test scores and its determination
  • use of factor analysis and path analysis in psychometry


UPSC IFS Exam Physics Syllabus

UPSC IFS Exam Physics Syllabus Paper - I Section-A Classical Mechanics (a) Particle dynamics: Centre of mass and laboratory coordinates conservation of linear and angular momentum The rocket equation Rutherford scattering Galilean transformation inertial and non-inertial frames rotating frames centrifugal…
UPSC IFS Exam Physics Syllabus

Paper – I

  1. Classical Mechanics

(a) Particle dynamics:

  • Centre of mass and laboratory coordinates
  • conservation of linear and angular momentum
  • The rocket equation
  • Rutherford scattering
  • Galilean transformation
  • inertial and non-inertial frames
  • rotating frames
  • centrifugal and Coriolls forces
  • Foucault pendulum

(b) System of particles

  • Constraints
  • degrees of freedom
  • generalised coordinates
  • Lagrange’s equation
  • applications to linear harmonic oscillator
  • simple pendulum
  • central force problems
  • Cyclic coordinates
  • Hamiltonian Lagrange’s equation from Hamilton’s principle.

(c) Rigid body dynamics

  • Eulerian angles
  • inertia tensor
  • principal moments of inertia
  • Euler’s equation of motion of a rigid body
  • force-free motion of a rigid body
  • Gyroscope
  • Special Relativity, Waves & Geometrical Optics :
  • Special Relativity
  • Michelson-Morley experiment and its implications
  • Lorentz transformations length contraction,
  • time dilation
  • addition of velocities
  • aberration and Doppler effect
  • mass energy relation
  • simple application to a decay process
  • Minkowski diagram
  • four dimensional momentum vector
  • Covariance of equations of physics.
  • Waves
  • Simple harmonic motion
  • damped oscillation
  • forced oscillation
  • resonance
  • Beats
  • Stationary waves in a string
  • Pulses and wave packets
  • Phase and group velocities
  • Reflection and Refraction from Huygens’ principle.
  • Geometrical Optics
  • Laws of reflection and refraction from Format’s principle
  • Matrix method in paraxial optic-thin-lens formula
  • nodal planes
  • system of two thin lenses
  • chromatic and spherical aberrations.
  1. Physical Optics :

(a) Interference

  • Interference of light-Young’s experiment
  • Newton’s rings
  • interference by thin films
  • Michelson interferometer
  • Multiple beam interference and Fabry-Perot interferometer
  • Holography and simple applications.

(b) Diffraction

  • Fraunhofer diffraction-single slit
  • double slit
  • diffraction grating
  • resolving power
  • Fresnel diffraction
  • half-period zones and zones plates
  • Fersnel integrals.
  • Application of Cornu’s spiral to the analysis of diffraction at a straight edge and by a long narrow slit. Deffraction by a circular aperture and the Airy pattern.

(c) Polarisation and Modern Optics

  • Production and detection of linearly and circularly polarised light
  • Double refraction
  • quarter wave plate
  • Optical activity
  • Principles of fibre optics attenuation
  • pulse dispersion in step index and parabolic index fibres
  • material dispersion
  • single mode fibres
  • Lasers-Einstein A and B coefficients
  • Ruby and He-Ne lasers
  • Characteristics of laser light-spatial and temporal coherence
  • Focussing of laser beams
  • Three-level scheme for laser operation.


  1. Electricity and Magnetism:

(a) Electrostatics and Magneto-statics

  • Laplace and Poisson equations in electrostatics and their applications
  • Energy of a system of charges
  • multiple expansion of scalar potential
  • Method of images and its applications.
  • Potential and field due to a dipole
  • force and torque on a dipole in an external field
  • Dielectrics
  • Polarisation
  • Solutions to boundary-value problems conducting and dielectric spheres in auniform electric field Magnetic shell
  • uniformly magnetised sphere
  • Ferromagnetic materials
  • Hysteresis
  • energy loss

(b) Current Electricity:
Kirchhoff’s laws and their applications, Biot- Savart law, Ampere’s law, Faraday’s law, Lenz’ law. Self and mutual inductances. Mean and rms values in AC circuits, LR, CR and LCR circuits-series and parallel resonance, Quality factor, Principle of transformer.

  1. Electromagnetic Theory & Black Body Radiation :

(a) Electromagnetic Theory : Displacement current and Maxwell’s equations. Wave equations in vacuum, Poynting theorem, Vector and scalar potentials, Gauge invariance, Lorentz and Coulomb gauges, Electromagnetic field tensor, covariance of Maxwell’s equations. Wave equations in isotropic dielectrics, reflection and refraction at the boundary of two dielectrics. Fresnel’s relations, Normal and anomalous dispersion, Rayleigh scattering.

(b) Blackbody radiation: Blackbody radiation ad Planck radiation law-Stefan-Boltzmann law, Wien displacement law and Rayleigh-Jeans law, Planck mass, Planck length, Planck time, Plank temperature and Planck energy.

  1. Thermal and Statistical Physics :

(a) Thermodynamics Laws of thermodynamics, reversible and irreversible processes, entropy, Isothermal, adiabatic, isobaric, isochoric processes and entropy change, Otto and Diesel engines, Gibbs’ phase rule and chemical potential. Van der Waals equation of state of real gas, critical constants. Maxwell-Boltzman distribution of molecular velocities, transport phenomena, equipartition and virial theorems, Dulong- Petit, Einstein, and Debye’s theories of specific heat of solids. Maxwell relations and applications. Clausius-Clapeyron equation. Adiabatic demagnetisation, Joule-Kelvin effect and liquefication of gases.
(b) Statistical Physics: Saha ionization formula, Bose-Einstein condensation, Thermodynamic behaviour of an ideal Fermi gas, Chandrasekhar limit, elementary ideas about neutron stars and pulsars, Brownian motion as a random walk, diffusion process. Concept of negative temperatures.
Paper – II

  1. Quantum Mechanics I:  Wave-particle duality. Schroedinger equation and expectation values. Uncertainty principle, Solutions of the onedimensional Schroedinger equation free particle (Gaussian wave-packet), particle in a box, particle in a finite well, linear, harmonic oscillator, Reflection and transmission by a potential step and by a rectangular barrier, use of WKB formula for the life- time calculation in the alphadecay problem.
  2. Quantum Mechanics II & Atomic Physics :

(a) Quantum Mechanics II :  Particle in a three dimensional box, density of states, free electron theory of metals, The angular momentum problem, The hydrogen atom, The spin half problem and properties of Pauli spin matrices.
(b) Atomic Physics :  Stern-Gerlack experiment, electron spin, fine structure of hydrogen atom, L-S coupling, J-J coupling, Spectroscopic notation of atomic states, Zeeman effect, Frank-Condon principle and applications.
Molecular Physics : Elementary theory of rotational, vibrational and electronic spectra of diatomic molecules, Raman effect and molecular structure, Laser Raman spectroscopy importance of neutral hydrogen atom, molecular hydrogen and molecular hydrogen ion in astronomy Fluorescence and Phos-phorescence, Elementary theory and applications of NMR. Elementary ideas about Lamb shift and its significance.
Nuclear Physics :  Basic nuclear properties-size, binding energy, angular momentum, parity,magnetic moment, Semi- empirical mass formula and applications, Mass parabolas, Ground state of deuteron magnetic moment and non-central forces, Meson theory of nuclear forces, Salient features of nuclear forces, Shell model of the nucleus-success and limitations, Violation of parity in beta decay, Gamma decay and internal conversion, Elementary ideas about Mossbauer spectroscopy, Q-value of nuclear reactions, Nuclear fission and fusion, energy production in stars, Nuclear reactors.
Particle Physics & Solid State Physics:
(a) Particle Physics:
Classification of elementary particles and their interactions, Conservation laws, Quark structure of hadrons. Field quanta of electro-weak and strong interactions. Elementary ideas about Unification of Forces, Physics of neutrinos.
(b) Solid State Physics Cubic crystal structure, Band theory of solids-conductors, insulators and semiconductors, Elements of superconductivity, Meissner effect, Joseph-son junctions and applications, Elementary ideas about high temperature superconductivity.

  1. Electronics Intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors-pn- p and n-p-n transistors, Amplifiers and oscillators, Op- amps, FET, JFET and MOSFET, Digital electronics-Boolean identities, De-Morgan’s laws, Logic gates and truth tables, Simple logic circuits, Thermistors, solar cells, Fundamentals of microprocessors and digital computers.


UPSC IFS Exam Mechanical Engineering Syllabus

UPSC IFS Exam Mechanical Engineering Syllabus Paper - I 1. Theory of Machines :  Kinematic and dynamic analysis of planar mechanisms, Cams, Gears and gear trains, Flywheels, Governors, Balancing of rigid rotors, Balancing of single and multicylinder engines, Linear vibration…
UPSC IFS Exam Mechanical Engineering Syllabus

Paper – I
1. Theory of Machines : 
Kinematic and dynamic analysis of planar mechanisms, Cams, Gears and gear trains, Flywheels, Governors, Balancing of rigid rotors, Balancing of single and multicylinder engines, Linear vibration analysis of mechanical systems (single degree and two degrees of freedom), Critical speeds and whirling of shafts, Automatic Controls, Belts and chain drives. Hydrodynamic bearings.
2. Mechanics of Solids : 
Stress and strain in two dimensions, Principal stresses and strains, Mohr’s construction, linear elastic materials, isotropy and anisotropy, Stress-strain relations, unilaxial loading, thermal stresses, Beams: Banding moment and shear force diagrams, bending stresses and deflection of beams, Shear stress distribution. Torsion of shafts, helical springs. Combined stresses, Thick and thin walled pressure vessels. Struts and columns. Strain energy concepts and theories of failure. Rotating discs. Shrink fits.
3. Engineering Materials :
Basic concepts on structure of solids, crystalline materials, Defects in crystalline materials, Alloys and binary phase diagrams, structure and properties of common engineering materials. Heat treatment of steels, plastics, Ceramics and composite Materials, common applications of
various materials.
4. Manufacturing Science: 
Merchant’s force analysis, Taylor’s tool life equation, machinability and machining economics, Rigid, small and flexible automation, NC, CNC. Recent machining methods-EDM, ECM and ultrasonic. Application of lasers and plasmas, analysis of forming processes. High energy rate forming  Jigs, fixtures, tools and gauges, Inspection of length, position, profile and surface finish.
Production Planning and Control, Forecasting-moving average, exponential smoothing, Operations sheduling; assembly line balancing. Product development, Breakeven analysis, Capacity planning. PERT and CPM. Control Operations: Inventory control-ABC analysis, EOQmodel, Materials requirement planning, Job design, Job standards, work measurement, Quality management-Quality control Operations Research: Linear programming-Graphical and Simplex methods, Transportation and assignment models, Single server queuing model.
Value Engineering: 
Value analysis, for cost/ value, Total quality management and forecasting techniques. Project management.
Computer Organisation, Flow charting, Features of Common Computer Languages FORTRAN, d Base-III, Lotus 1-2-3, C and elementary programming.
Paper – II
Basic concept, Open and closed systems, Applications of Thermo-dynamic Laws, Gas equations, Clapeyron equation, Availability, Irreversibility and T ds relations.
2. I.C. Engines, Fuels and Combustion: 
Spark Ignition and compression ignition engines, four stroke engine and two stroke engines, mechanical, thermal and volumetric efficiency, Heat balance. Combustion process in S.I. and C.I. engines, pre-ignition detonation in S.I. engine Diesel knock in C.I. engine. Choice of
engine fuels, Octane and Cetane retings. Alternate fuels Carburration and Fuel injection, Engine emissions and control, Solid, liquid and gaseous fuels, stoichometric air requirements and excess air factor, fuel gas analysis, higher and lower calorific values and their measurements.
One and two dimensional heat conduction. Heat transfer from extended surfaces, heat transfer by forced and free convection. Heat exchangers, Fundamentals for diffusive and connective mass transfer, Radiation laws, heat exchange between black and non black surfaces, Network Analysis, Heat pump refrigeration cycles and systems, Condensers, evaporators and expansion devices and controls, Properties and choice of refrigerant,
Refrigeration Systems and components, psychometrics, comfort indices, cooling loading calculations, solar refrigeration.
Continuity, momentum and Energy Equations. Adiabatic and Isentropic flow, fanno lines, Raylegh lines, Theory and design of axial flow turbines and compressors, Flow through turbo- machine balde, cascades, centrifugal compressor. Dimensional analysis and modelling.
Selection of site for steam, hydro nuclear and stand-by power plants, Selection base and peak load power plants, Modern High Pressure, High duty boilers, Draft and dust removal equipment, Fuel and cooling water systems, heat balance, station and plant heat rates, operation and maintenance of various power plants, preventive maintenance, economics of power generation.



UPSC IFS Exam Mathematics Syllabus

UPSC IFS Exam Mathematics Syllabus Paper - I Section-A Linear Algebra :  Vector, space, linear dependence and independence, subspaces, bases, dimensions. Finite dimensional vector spaces. Matrices, Cayley-Hamilition theorem, eigen-values and eigenvectors, matrix of linear transformation, row and column reduction, Echelon…
UPSC IFS Exam Mathematics Syllabus

Paper – I
Linear Algebra : 
Vector, space, linear dependence and independence, subspaces, bases, dimensions. Finite dimensional vector spaces. Matrices, Cayley-Hamilition theorem, eigen-values and eigenvectors, matrix of linear transformation, row and column reduction, Echelon form, equivalences, congruences
and similarity, reduction to cannonical form, rank, orthogonal, symmetrical, skew symmetrical, unitary, hermitian, skewhermitian forms- their eigenvalues. Orthogonal and unitary reduction of quadratic and
hermitian forms, positive definite quardratic forms.
Calculus : 
Real numbers, limits, continuity ,differentiability, mean-value theorems, Taylor’s theorem with remainders, indeterminate forms, maxima and minima, asymptotes. Functions of several variables: continuity, differentiability, partial derivatives, maxima and minima, Lagrange’s method of multipliers, Jacobian. Riemann’s definition of definite integrals, indefinite integrals, infinite and improper integrals, beta and gamma functions. Double and triple integrals (evaluation techniques only). Areas, surface and volumes, centre of gravity.
Analytical Geometry : 
Cartesian and polar coordinates in two and three dimensions, second degree equations in two and three dimensions, reduction to cannonical forms, straight lines, shortest distance between two skew lines, plane, sphere, cone, cylinder, paraboloid, ellipsoid, hyperboloid of one and two sheets and their properties.

Ordinary Differential Equations:
Formulation of differential equations, order and degree, equations of first order and first degree, integrating factor, equations of first order but not of first degree, Clariaut’s equation, singular solution. Higher order linear equations with constant coefficients, complementary function and particular integral, general solution, Euler-Cauchy equation.
Second order linear equations with variable coefficients, determination of complete solution when one solution is known, method of variation of parameters.

Dynamics, Statics and Hydrostatics: 
Degree of freedom and constraints, rectilinear motion, simple harmonic motion, motion in a plane, projectiles, constrained motion, work and energy, conservation of energy, motion under impulsive forces, Kepler’s laws, orbits under central forces, motion of varying mass, motion under resistance. Equilibrium of a system of particles, work and potential energy, friction, common catenary, principle of virtual work, stability of equilibrium, equilibrium of forces in three dimensions.
Pressure of heavy fluids, equilibrium of fluids under given system of forces, Bernoulli’s equation, centre of pressure, thrust on curved surfaces, equilibrium of floating bodies, stability of equilibrium, meta-centre, pressure of gases.

Vector Analysis: 
Scalar and vector fields, triple products, differentiation of vector function of a scalar variable, gradient, divergence and curl in Cartesian, cylindrical and spherical coordinates and their physical interpretations. Higher order derivatives, vector identities and vector equations.
Application to Geometry: 
Curves in space curvature and torision. Serret-Frenet’s formulae, Gauss and Stokes’ theorems, Green’s identities.
Paper – II
Groups, sub-groups, normal subgroups, homomorphism of groups, quotient groups, basic isomorphism theorems, Sylow’s group, permutation groups, Cayley theorem, rings and ideals, principal ideal domains, unique factorization domains and Euclidean domains. Field extensions, finite
Real Analysis: 
Real number system, ordered sets, bounds, ordered field, real number system as an ordered field with least upper bound property, Cauchy sequence, completeness, Continuity and uniform continuity
of functions, properties of continuous functions on compact sets. Riemann integral, improper integrals, absolute and conditional convergence of series of real and complex terms, rearrangement of series, Uniform convergence, continuity, differentiability and integrability for sequences and series
of functions. Differentiation of functions of several variables, change in the order of partial derivatives, implicit function theorem, maxima and minima, Multiple integrals.
Complex Analysis:
Analytic function Cauchy-Riemann equations, Cauchy’s theorem, Cauchy’s integral formula, power series, Taylor’s series, Laurent’s Series, Singularities, Cauchy’s residue theorem, contour integration, Conformal mapping, bilinear transformations.
Linear Programming:
Linear programming problems, basic solution, basic feasible solution and optimal solution, graphical method and Simplex method of solutions, Duality. Transportation and assignment problems, Travelling salesman problems.
Partial differential equations: 
Curves and surfaces in three dimensions, formulation of partial differentiation equations, solutions of equations of type dx/p=dy/q=dz/r; orthogonal trajectories, Pfaffian differential equations; partial
differential equation of the first order, solution by Cauchy’s method of characteristics; Charpit’s method of solutions, linear partial differential equations of the second order with constant coefficients, equations of vibrating string, heat equation, Laplace equation.
Numerical analysis and Computer programming:  Numerical methods: solution of algebraic and transcendental equations of one variable by bisection, Regula-Falsi and Newton-Raphson methods, solution of system of linear equations by Gaussian elimination and Gauss-Jordan (direct) methods, Gauss-Seidel (iterative) method. Newton’s (Forward
and backward) and Lagrange’s method of interpolation.

Numerical integration: 
Simpson’s onethird rule, tranpezodial rule, Gaussian quardrature formula.
Numerical solution of ordinary differential equations:   Euler and Runge Kuttamethods. Computer Programming: Storage of numbers in computers, bits, bytes and words, binary system, arithmetic and logical operations on numbers, Bitwise operations. AND, OR, SOR, NOT, and shift/rotate operators, Octal and Hexadecimal Systems. Conversion to and
form decimal Systems. Representation of unsigned integers, signed integers and reals, double precision reals and long integrers.
Algorithms and flow charts for solving numerical analysis problems. Developing simple programs in Basic for problems involving techniques covered in the numerical analysis.
Mechanics and Fluid Dynamics:
Generalised coordinates, constraints, holonomic and non-holonomic, systems, D’ Alembert’s principle and Lagrange’s equations, Hamilton equations, moment of inertia, motion of rigid bodies in two dimensions. Equation of continuity, Euler’s equation of motion for inviscid flow, stream-lines, path of a particle, potential flow,two-dimensional and axisymetric motion, sources and sinks, vortex motion, flow past a cylinder and a sphere, method of images. Navier- Stokes equation for a viscous fluid.



UPSC IFS Exam Geology Syllabus

UPSC IFS Exam Geology Syllabus Paper - I Section-A (i) General Geology:  The Solar System, meteorities, origin and interior of the earth. Radioactivity and age of earth; Volcanoes-causes and products, volcanic belts. Earthquakes - causes, effects, earthquake belts, seismicity of…
UPSC IFS Exam Geology Syllabus

Paper – I
(i) General Geology: 
The Solar System, meteorities, origin and interior of the earth. Radioactivity and age of earth; Volcanoes-causes and products, volcanic belts. Earthquakes – causes, effects, earthquake belts, seismicity of India, intensity and magnitude,seismongraphs. Island arcs, deep sea trenches and mid-ocean ridges. Continental drift-evidences and mechanics;
sea-floor spreading, plate tectonics. Isostasy, orogeny and epeirogeny. Continents and oceans.
(ii) Geomorphology and Remote Sensing: 
Basic concepts of geomorphology.Weathering and mass wasting. Landforms, slopes and drainage. Geomorphic cycles and their interpretation, Morphology and its relation to structures and lithology. Applications of geomorphology in mineral prospecting, civil
engineering, hydrology and environmental studies. Geomorphology of Indian sub- continent. Aerial photographs and their interpretationmerits and limitations.The Electromagnetic Spectrum. Orbiting satellites and sensor systems.Indian Remote Sensing Satellites. Satellites data products. Applications of remote sensing in geology.The Geographic Information System and its applications. Global Positioning System.
(iii) Structural geology:
Principles of geologic mapping and map reading, projection diagrams, stress andstrain ellipsoid and stress-strain relationships of elastic, plastic and viscous materials. Strain markers in deformed rocks. Behaviour of minerals and rocks under deformation conditions. Folds and faults classification and mechanics.Structural analysis of folds, foliations, lineations, joints and faults, unconformities. Superposed deformation. Time – relationship between crystallization and deformation. Introduction to petrofabrics.

Section- B
(iv) Paleontology: 
Species definition and nomenclature.Megafossils and Microfossils. Modes of preservation of fossils. Different kinds of micro fossils. Application of microfossils in correlation, petroleum exploration, paleo-climatic and pale oceanographic studies, Morphology, geological history and evolutionary trend in Cephalopoda, Trilobita, Brachiopoda, Echi- noidea and Anthozoa, Stratigraphic utility of Ammonoidea, Trilobita and Graptoloidea, Evolutionary trend in Hominidae, Equidae and Probo-scidae. Siwalik fauna, Gondwana flora and its importance.
(v) Stratigraphy and Geology of India: 
Classification of stratigraphic sequences: lithostratigraphic, biostratigraphic, chronostratigraphic and magnetostratigraphic and their interrelationships. Distribution and classification of Precambrian rocks of India. Study of stratigraphic distribution and lithology of Phanerozoic rocks of India with reference to fauna, flora and economic importance. Major boundary problems -Cambrian/Precambrian, Permian/ Triassic,
Cretaceous/Tertiary and Pliocene/ Pleistocene. Study of climatic conditions,

paleogeography and igneous activity in the Indian subcontinent in the geological past. Tectonic framework of India. Evolution of the Himalayas.
(vi) Hydrogeology and Engineering Geology: 
Hydrologic cycle and genetic classification of water. Movement of subsurface water, Springs. Porosity, permeability, hydraulic conductivity, transmissivity and storage coefficient, classification of aquifers.Water-bearingcharacteristics of rocks. Ground-water chemistry. Salt water intrusion.Types of wells.Drainage basin morphometry. Exploration
for groundwater. Groundwater recharge. Problems and management of groundwater, Rainwater harvesting. Engineering properties of rocks. Geological investigations for dams, tunnels and bridges. Rock as construction material. Alkali-aggregate reaction. Landslides causes, prevention and rehabilitation. Earthquake-resistant structures.

Paper – II
(i) Mineralogy: 
Classification of crystals into systems and classes of symmetry. International system of crystallographic notation. Use of projection diagrams to represent crystal symmetry. Crystal defects. Elements of xray crystallography. Petrological microscope and accessories. Optical properties of common rock forming minerals. Pleochroism, extinction angle, double refraction, birefringence, twinning and dispersion in minerals. Physical and
chemical characters of rock forming silicate mineral groups. Structural classification of silicates. Common minerals of igneous and metamorphic rocks. Minerals of the caronate, phosphate, sulphide and halide groups.
(ii) Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology:
Generation and crystallisation of magma. Crystallisation of albite-anorthite, diopside- anorthite and diopsidewollastonite- silica systems. Reaction principle. Magmatic differentiation and assimilation. Petrogenetic significance of the textures and structures of igneous rocks. Petrography and petrogenesis of granite, syenite, diorite, basic and ultrabasic groups, charnockite, anorthosite and alkaline rocks. Carbonatites. Deccan
volcanic province. Types and agents of metamorphism. Metamorphic grades and zones. Phase rule. Facies of regional and contact metamorphism. ACF and AKF diagrams. Textures and structures of metamorphic rocks. Metamorphism of arenaceous, argillaceous and basic rocks. Minerals assemblages, Retrograde metamorphism. Metasomatism and granitisation, migmatities, granulite terrains of India.
(iii) Sedimentology: Sedimentary rocks: 
Processes of formation, diagenesis and lithification, Properties of sediments. Clastic and nonclastic rocks-their classification, petrography and depositional environment, Sedimentary facies and provenance. Sedimentary structures and their significance. Heavy minerals and their significance. Sedimentary basins of India.

(iv) Economic Geology:
Ore, ore minerals and gangue, tenor of ore, classification of ore deposits. Process of formation of minerals deposits. Controls of ore locallisation. Ore textures and structures, Metallogenic epochs and provinces, Geology of the important Indian deposits of aluminium, chromium, copper, gold, iron, lead, zinc, manganese, titanium, uranium and thorium and industrial minerals. Deposits of coal and petroleum in India. National Mineral
Policy. Conservation and utilization of mineral resources. Marine mineral resources and Law of Sea.
(v) Mining Geology: 
Methods of prospecting-geological, geophysical, geo-chemical and geo-botanical, Techniques of sampling. Estimation of reserves of ore, Methods of exploration and mining metalic ores, industrial minerals and marine mineral resources. Mineral beneficiation and ore dressing.
(vi) Geochemistry and Environmental Geology: 
Cosmic abundance of elements, Composition of the planets and meteorites, Structure and composition of earth and distribution of elements, Trace elements, Elements of crystal chemistry – types of chemical bonds, coordination number, Isomorphism and polymorphism, Elementary thermodynamics. Natural hazards-floods, landslides, coastal
erosion, earthquakes and volcanic activity and mitigation, Environmental impact of urbanization, open cast mining, industrial and radioactive waste disposal, use of fertilizers, dumping of mine waste and fly-ash. Pollution of ground and surface water, marine pollution,environment protection-legislative measures in India.



UPSC IFS Exam Forestry Syllabus

UPSC IFS Exam Forestry Syllabus Paper - I Section-A 1. Silviculture – General: General Silvicultural Principles: Ecological and physiological factors influencing vegetation, natural and artificial regeneration of forests; methods of propagation, grafting techniques; site factors; nursery and planting techniquesnursery beds,…
UPSC IFS Exam Forestry Syllabus

Paper – I
1. Silviculture – General:
General Silvicultural Principles: Ecological and physiological factors influencing vegetation, natural and artificial regeneration of forests; methods of propagation, grafting techniques; site factors; nursery
and planting techniquesnursery beds, poly-bags and maintenance, water budgeting, grading and hardening of seedlings; special approaches; establishment and tending.
2. Silviculture-Systems:
Clear felling, uniform shelter wood selection, coppice and conversion systems, Management of silviculture systems of temperate, subtropical, humid tropical, dry tropical and coastal tropical forests with special reference to plantation silviculture, choice of species, establishment and management of standards, enrichment methods, technical constraints, intensive mechanized methods, aerial seeding, thinning.
3. Silviculture – Mangrove and Cold desert:
Mangrove: Habitat and characteristics, mangrove, plantation-establishment and rehabilitation of degraded mangrove formations; silvicultural systems for mangrove; protection of habitats against
natural disasters. Cold desert- Characteristics, identification and management of species.
4. Silviculture of trees: 
Traditional and recent advances in tropical silvicultural research and practices. Silviculture of some of the economically important species in India such as Acacia catechu, Acacia nilotica, Acacia auriculiformis, Albizzia lebbeck, Albizzia procera, Anthocephalus Cadamba, Anogeissus latifokia,
Azadirachta indica, Bamboo spp, Butea monosperma, Cassia siamea, Casuarina equisetifolia, Cedrus deodara, Chukrasia tabularis, Dalbergia sisoo, Dipterocarpus spp, Emblica officindils, Eucalyptus spp, Gmelina Arborea, Hardwickia binata, Largerstroemia Lanceolata, Pinus roxburghi,
Populus spp, Pterocarpus marsupium, Prosopis juliflora, Santalum album, Semecarpus anacrdium,. Shorea robusta, Salmalia malabaricum, Tectona grandis, Terminalis tomemtosa,Tamarindus indica.
Section- B
1.Agroforestry, Social Forestry, Joint Forest Management and Tribology:
Agroforestry – Scope and necessity; role in the life of people and domestic animals and in integrated land use, planning especially related to (i) soil and water conservation; (ii) water recharge; (iii) nutrient availability to crops; (iv) nature and eco-system preservation including ecological balances through pest-predator relationships and (v) Providing opportunities for enhancing biodiversity, medicinal and other flora and fauna. Agro forestry systems under different agroecological zones; selection of species and role of multipurpose trees and NTFPs, techniques, food, fodder and fuel security. Research and Extension needs. Social/Urban Forestry : Objectives, scope and necessity; peoples participation. JFM – Principles, objectives, methodology, scope, benefits and role of NGOs. Tribology:
Tribal scene in India; tribes, concept of races, Principles of social grouping, stages of tribal economy,education, cultural tradition, customs, ethos and participation in forestry programmes.
2. Forest Soils, soil Conservation and Watershed Management:
Forests Soils: Classification, factors affecting soil formation; physical, chemical and biological properties.
Soil conservation – definition, causes for erosion; types–wind and water erosion; conservation and management of eroded soils/areas, wind breaks, shelter belts; sand dunes; reclamation of saline and alkaline soils, water logged and other waste lands. Role of forests in conserving soils. Maintenance and build up of soil organic matter, provision of loppings for green leaf manuring; forest leaf litter and composting; Role of micro-organisms in ameliorating soils; N and C cycles, VAM. Watershed Management – Concepts of watershed; role of mini-forests and forest trees in overall resource management, forest hydrology, watershed development in respect of torrent control, river channel stabilization, avalanche and landslide controls, rehabilitation of degraded areas; hilly and mountain
areas; watershed management and environmental functions of forests; water-harvesting and conservation; ground water recharge and watershed management; role of integrating forest trees, horticultural crops, field crops, grass and fodders.
3.Environmental Conservation and Biodiversity:
Environment : Components and importance, principles of conservation, impact of deforestation; forest fires and various human activities like mining, construction and developmental projects, population growth on environment.
Pollution: Types, Global warming, green house effects, ozone layer depletion, acid rain, impact and control measures, environmental monitoring; concept of sustainable development. Role of trees and
forests in environmental conservation; control and prevention of air, water and noise pollution. Environmental policy and legislation in India. Environmental impact Assessment, Economics assessment of watershed development vis-a-vis ecological and environmental protection.
4. Tree Improvement and Seed Technology :
General concept of tree improvement, methods and techniques, variation and its use, provenance, seed source, exotics; quantitative aspects of forest tree improvement, seed production and seed orchards, progeny tests, use of tree improvement in natural forest and stand improvement, genetic
testing programming, selection and breeding for resistance to diseases, insects, and adverse environment; the genetic base, forest genetic resources and gene conservation in situ and ex-situ. Cost benefit ratio, economic evaluation.
Paper – II
1. Forest Management and Management Systems: 
Objective and principles; techniques; stand structure and dynamics, sustained yield relation; rotation, normal forest, growing stock; regulation of yield; management of forest plantations, commercial forests, forest cover monitoring. Approaches viz., (i) site-specific planning, (ii) strategic planning, (iii) Approval, sanction and expenditure. (iv) Monitoring (v) Reporting and governance. Details of steps involved such as formation of Village Forest Committees, Joint Forest Participatory Management.
2. Forest Working Plan: 
Forest planning, evaluation and monitoring tools and approaches for integrated planning; multipurpose development of forest resources and forest industries development; working plans and working schemes, their role in nature conservation, bio-diversity and other dimensions; preparation and control. Divisional Working Plans, Annual Plan of Operations.
3. Forest Mensuration and Remote Sensing: 
Methods of measuring- diameter, girth, height and volume of trees; form-factor; volume estimation of stand, current annual increment; mean annual increment, Sampling methods and sample plots. Yield calculation; yield and stand tables, forest cover monitoring through remote sensing; Geographic Information Systems for management and modelling.
4. Surveying and Forest Engineering:
Forest surveying – different methods of surveying, maps and map reading. Basic principles of forest engineering. Building materials and construction. Roads and Bridges, General principles, objects, types, simple design and construction of timber bridges.
Section- B
1. Forest Ecology and Ethnobotany:
Forest Ecology: Biotic and aboitic components, forest eco-systems; forest community concepts; vegetation concepts, ecological succession and climax, primary productivity, nutrient cycling and water relations; physiology in stress environments (drought, water logging salinity and alkalinity). Forest types in India, identification of species, composition and associations; dendrology, taxonomic classification, principles and establishment of herbaria and arboreta. Conservation of forest
ecosystems. Clonal parks. Role of Ethnobotany in Indian Systems of Medicine; Ayurveda and Unani – Introduction, nomenclature, habitat, distribution and botanical features of medicinal and aromatic
plants. Factors affecting action and toxicity of drug plants and their chemical constituents.
2. Forest Resources and Utilization: 
Environmentally sound forest harvesting practices; logging and extraction techniques and principles, transportation systems, storage and sale; Non-Timber Forest Products (NTFPs) – definition and scope; gums, resins, oleoresins, fibres, oil seeds nuts, rubber, canes, bamboos, medicinal plants, charcoal, lac and shellac, katha and Bidi leaves, collection; processing and
disposal, need and importance of wood seasoning and preservation; general principles of seasoning, air and kiln seasoning, solar dehumidification, steam heated and electrical kilns. Composite wood; adhesives-manufacture, properties, uses, plywood manufacture-properties,
uses, fibre boards-manufacture properties, uses; particle boards-manufacture; properties, uses. Present status of composite wood industry in India and future expansion plans. Pulp- paper and rayon; present position of supply of raw material to industry, wood substitution,
utilization of plantation wood; problems and possibilities. Anatomical structure of wood, defects and abnormalities of wood, timber identification-general principles.
3. Forest Protection & wildlife Biology: 
Injuries to forest – abiotic and biotic, destructive agencies, insect-pests and disease, effects of air pollution on forests and forest die back. Susceptibility of forests to damage, nature of damage, cause, prevention, protective measures and benefits due to chemical and biological control. General forest protection against fire, equipment and methods, controlled use of fire, economic and environmental costs; timber salvage operations after natural disasters. Role of afforestation and forest regeneration in absorption of CO2. Rotational and controlled grazing, different methods of control against grazing and browsing animals; effect of wild animals on
forest regeneration, human impacts; encroachment, poaching, grazing, live fencing, theft, shifting cultivation and control.
4. Forest Economics and Legislation:
Forest economics: Fundamental principles, cost-benefit analyses; estimation of demand and supply; analysis of trends in the national and international market and changes in production and consumption patterns; assessment and projection of market structures; role of private sector and co- operatives; role of corporate financing. Socio-economic analysis of forest productivity and attitudes; valuation of forest goods and service.
Legislation-History of forest development; Indian Forest Policy of 1894, 1952 and 1990. National Forest Policy, 1988 of People’s involvement, Joint Forest Management, Involvement of women; Forestry policies and issues related to land use, timber and non-timber products, sustainable forest
management; industrialisation policies; institutional and structural changes. Decentralization and Forestry Public Administration. Forest laws, necessity; general principles, Indian Forest Act 1927; Forest Conservation Act, 1980; Wildlife Protection Act 1972 and their amendments; Application of Indian Penal Code to Forestry. Scope and objectives of Forest Inventory.



UPSC IFS Exam Civil Engineering Syllabus

UPSC IFS exam Civil Engineering Syllabus Paper - I Part-A ENGINEERING MECHANICS, STRENGTH OF MATERIALS AND STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS. ENGINEERING MECHANICS : Units and Dimensions, SI Units, Vectors, Concept of Force, Concept of particle and rigid body.Concurrent, Non-Concurrent and parallel forces in…
UPSC IFS exam Civil Engineering Syllabus

Paper – I
Units and Dimensions, SI Units, Vectors, Concept of Force, Concept of particle and rigid body.Concurrent, Non-Concurrent and parallel forces in a plane, moment of force and Varignon’s theorem, free body diagram, conditions of equilibrium, Principle of virtual work, equivalent force system.First and Second Moment of area, Mass moment of Inertia.
Static Friction, Inclined Plane and bearings. Kinematics and Kinetics.
Kinematics in Cartesian and Polar Coordinates, motion under uniform and nonuniform acceleration,motion under gravity. Kinetics of particle: Momentum and Energy principles, D’Alembert’s Principle, Collision of elastic bodies, rotation of rigid bodies, simple harmonic motion, Flywheel.
Simple Stress and Strain, Elastic constants, axially loaded compression members, Shear force and bending moment, theory of simple bending, Shear Stress distribution across cross sections, Beams of uniform strength, Leaf Spring. Strain Energy in direct stress, bending & shear.
Deflection of beams: Mecaulay’s method, Mohr’s Moment area method, Conjugate beam method, unit load method, Torsion of Shafts, Transmission of power, close coiled helical springs, Elastic stability of columns, Euler’s Rankine’s and Secant formulae. Principal Stresses and Strains in two dimensions, Mohr’s Circle, Theories of Elastic Failure, Thin and Thick cylinder; Stresses due to internal and external pressure- Lame’s equations.
Castiglianio’s theroems I and II, Unit load method of consistent deformation applied to beams and pin jointed trusses. Slopedeflection, moment distribution, Kani’s method of analysis and column Analogy
method applied to indeterminate beams and rigid frames.
Rolling loads and influences lines: Influences lines for Shear Force and Bending moment at a section of beam. Criteria for maximum shear force and bending Moment in beams traversed by a system of moving loads. Influences lines for simply supported plane pin jointed trusses.
Three hinged, two hinged and fixed arches, rib shortening and temperature effects, influence lines in arches.
Matrix methods of analysis: Force method and displacement method of analysis of indeterminate beams and rigid frames.Plastic Analysis of beams and frames:Theory of plastic bending, plastic analysis, statical method, Mechanism method. Unsymmetrical bending: Moment of inertia, product of inertia, position of Neutral Axis and Principle axes, calculation of bending stresses.
Structural Steel: Factors of safety and load factors, Rivetted, bolted and welded joints and connections. Design of tension and compression member, beams of built up section, rivetted and welded plate girders, gantry girders, stancheons with battens and lacings, slab and gussetted column bases. Design of highway and railway bridges: Through and deck type plate girder, Warren girder, Pratt truss.
Concept of mix design, Reinforces Concrete: Working Stress and Limit State method of design-recommendations of I.S. codes, design of one way and two way slabs, stair-case slabs, simple and continuous beams of rectangular, T and L sections. Compression members under direct load with or without eccentricity, Isolated and combined footings. Cantilever and counterfort type retaining walls. Water tanks: Design requirements for rectangular and circular tanks resting on ground. Prestressed concrete:
Methods and systems of prestressing, anchorages, analysis and disign of sections for flexure based on working stress, loss of prestress.Design of brick masonry as per I.S. Codes Design of masonry retaining walls.
Fluid Mechanics:  Fluid properties and their role in fluid motion, fluid statics including forces acting on plane and curve surfaces. Kinematics and Dynamics of Fluid flow: Velocity and accelerations, stream lines, equation of continuity, irrotational and rotational flow, velocity potential and stream functions, flownet, methods of drawing flownet, sources and sinks, flow separation, free and forced vortices.Control volume equation, continuity, momentum, energy and moment of momentum equations from control volume equation, Navier-Strokes equation, Euler’s equation of motion, application to fluid flow problems, pipe flow, plane, curved, stationary and moving vanes, sluice gates, weirs, orifice meters and Venturi meters.
Dimensional Analysis and Similitude:  Buckingham’s Pi-theorem, dimensionless parameters, similitude theory, model laws, undistorted and
distorted models. Laminar Flow: Laminar flow between parallel, stationary and moving plates, flow through tube.
Boundary Layer:
Laminar and turbulent boundary layer on a flat plate, laminar sublayer, smooth and rough boundaries, drag and lift.
Turbulent flow through pipes:  Characteristics of turbulent flow, velocity distribution and variation of pipe friction factor, hydraulic grade line and total energy line, siphons, expansion and contractions in pipes, pipe networks, water hammer in pipes and surge tanks.
Open Channel Flow: 
Uniform and nonuniform flows, momentum and energy correction factors. Specific energy and specific force, critical depth, resistance equations and variation of roughness coefficient, rapidly varied flow, flow in contractions, flow at sudden drop, hydraulic jump and its applications surges and waves,
gradually varied flow, classification of surface profiles, control section, step method of integration of varied flow equation, moving surges and hydraulic bore.
Centrifugal pumps:
Types, characteristics, Net positive Suction Height (NPSH), specific speed, Pumps in parallel. Reciprocating pumps, Air vessels,Hydraulic ram, efficiency parameters, Rotary and positive displacement pumps, diaphragm and jet pumps. Hydraulic turbines, types classification, Choice of
turbines, performance parameters, controls, characteristics, specific speed. Principles of hydropower development. Type, layouts and Component works, surge tanks, types and choice. Flow duration curves and dependable flow. Storage an pondage, Pumped storage plants. Special features of mini, micro-hydel plants.
Types of soil, phase relationships, consistency limits particles size distribution, classifications of soil, structure and clay mineralogy. Capillary water and structural water, effectives trees and pore water pressure, Darcy’s Law, factors affecting permeability, determination of permeability, permeability of stratified soil deposits. Seepage pressure, quick sand condition, compressibility and consolidation, Terzaghi’s theory of one dimensional consolidation, consolidation test. Compaction of soil, field
control of compaction. Total stress and effective stress parameters, pore pressure coefficients. Shear strength of soils, Mohr Coulomb failure theory, Shear tests. Earth pressure at rest, active and passive pressure, Rankin’s theory, Coulomb’s wedge theory, earth pressure on retaining wall, sheetpile walls, Braced excavation. Bearing capacity, Terzaghi and other important theories, net and gross bearing pressure. Immediate and consolidation settlement. Stability of slope, Total Stress and Effective Stress methods, Conventional methods of slices, stability number. Subsurface exploration, methods of boring, sampling, penetration tests, pressure meter tests.
Essential features of foundation, types of foundation, design criteria, choice of type of foundation, stress distribution in soils, Boussinessq’s theory, Newmarks’ chart, pressure bulb, contact pressure, applicability of different bearing capacity theories, evaluation of bearing capacity from field tests,
allowable bearing capacity, Settlement analysis, allowable settlement. Proportioning of footing, isolated and combined footings, rafts, buoyancy rafts, Pile foundation, types of piles, piles capacity, static and dynamic analysis, design of pile groups, pile load test, settlement of piles, lateral capacity. Foundation for Bridges. Ground improvement techniques-preloading, sand drains, stone column, grouting, soil stabilisation.
Paper – II
1. Construction Technology:
Engineering Materials: Physical properties of construction materials: Stones, Bricks and Tiles; Lime, Cement and Surkhi Mortars; Lime concrete and Cement concrete, Properties of freshly mixed and hardened concrete, flooring Tiles, use of ferro-cement, fibre-reinforced and polymer concrete, high strength concrete and light weight concrete. Timber: Properties and uses; defects in timber; seasoning and preservation of timber, Plastics, rubber and damp-proofing materials, termite proofing, Materials for Low cost housing.
Building components and their functions; Brick masonry: Bonds, jointing, Stone masonry, Design of Brick masonry walls as per I.S. codes, factors of safety, serviceability and strength requirements; plastering, pointing. Types of Floors & Roofs, Ventilators, Repairs in buildings. Functional planning of building: Building orientation, circulation, grouping of areas, privacy concept and design of energy efficient building; provisions of National Building Code. Building estimates and specifications; Cost of works; valuation.
2. Construction Equipment :
Standard and special types of equipment, Preventive maintenance and repair, factors affecting the selection of equipment, economical life, time and motion study, capital and maintenance cost.
Concreting equipments : 
Weigh batcher, mixer, vibration, batching plant, Concrete pump.Earth-work equipment : Power shovel hoe, bulldozer, dumper, trailors, and tractors, rollers, sheep foot roller.
3. Construction Planning and Management : 
Construction activity, schedules, job layout, bar charts, organization of contracting firms, project control and supervision. Cost reduction measures.
New-work analysis: 
CPM and PERT analysis, Float times, cashing of activities, contraction of network for cost optimization, up dating, cost analysis and resource allocation. Elements of Engineering Economics, methods of appraisal, present worth, annual cost, benefit-cost, incremental analysis. Economy of scale and size. Choosing between alternatives including levels of investments. Project profitability.
Survey :
Common methods of distance and angle measurements, plane table survey, levelling traverse survey, triangulation survey, corrections, and adjustments, contouring, topographical map. Surveying instruments for above purposes Techeometry. Circular and transition curves, Principles of
Railways: Permanent way, sleepers, rail fastenings, ballast, points and crossings, design of turn outs, stations and yards, turn-tables, signals, and interlocking, levelcrossing.Construction and maintenance of permanent ways: Superelevlation, creep of rail, ruling gradient, track resistance, tractive effort, relaying of track.
Highway Engineering: Principles of highway planning, Highway alignments, Geometrical design: Cross section, camber, superelevation, horizontal and vertical curves. Classification of roads: low cost roads, flexible pavements, rigid pavements. Design of payments and their construction, evaluation of pavement failure and strengthening. Drainage of roads: Surface and subsurface drainage.  Traffic Engineering : Forecasting techniques, origin and destination survey, highway capacity,
Channelised and unchannelised intersections, rotary design elements, markings, sign, signals, street lighting; Traffic surveys, Principle of highway financing.
Hydrological cycle, precipitation, evaporation, transpiration, depression storage, infiltration, overland flow, hydrograph, flood frequency analysis, flood estimation, flood routing through a reservoir, channel flow routing-Muskingam method. Ground water flow:  Specific yield, storage coefficient of permeability, confined and unconfined aquifers,aquifers, aquitards, radial flow into a well under confined and unconfined conditions, tube wells, pumping and recuperation tests, ground water potential.

Ground and surface water resource, single and multipurpose projects, storage capacity of reservoirs,reservoir losses, reservoir sedimentation, economics of water resources projects.
Water requirements of crops: consumptive use, quality of water for irrigation duty and delta, irrigation methods and their efficiencies.
Distribution systems for canal irrigation, canal capacity, canal losses, alignment of main and distributory canals, most efficient section, lined canals, their design, regime theory, critical shear stress, bed load, local and suspended load transport, cost analysis of lined and unlied canals, drain-
age behind lining. Water logging: causes and control, drainage system design, salinity.Canal structures: Design of cross regulators, head regulators, canal falls, aqueducts, metering flumes and
Diversion head work: 
Principles and design of weirs of permeable and impermeable foundation, Khosla’s theory, energy dissipation, stilling basin, sediment excluders. Storage Works: Types of dams, design, principles of rigid gravity and earth dams, stability analysis, foundation treatment, joints and galleries, control of seepage.
Spillway types, crest gates, energy dissipation.
River training: 
Objectives of river training, methods of river training.
Water Supply : 
Estimation of surface and subsurface water resources, predicting demand for water, impurities of water and their significance, physical, chemical and bacteriological analysis, waterborne diseases, standards for potable water.
Intake of water:
Pumping and gravity schemes. Water treatment: Princi-ples of coagulation, flocculation and sedimentation; slow-, rapid-, pressure-, filters; chlorination, softening, removal of taste, odour and salinity.
Water storage and distribution: 
Storage and balancing reservoirs: types, location and capacity. Distribution system: layout, hydraulics of pipe lines, pipe fittings, valves including check and pressure reducing valves, meters, analysis of distribution systems, leak detection, maintenance of distribution systems, pumping stations and their
Sewerage systems: 
Domestic and industrial wastes, storm sewage-separate and combined systems, flow through sewers, design of sewers, sewer appurtenances, manholes, inlets, junctions, siphon, Plumbing in Public buildings.
Sewage characterisation:
BOD, COD, solids, dissolved oxygen, nitrogen and TOC. Standards of disposal in normal water course and on land.
Sewage treatment: 
Working principles, units, chambers, sedimentation tanks, trickling filters, oxidation ponds, activated sludge process, septic tank; disposal of sludge, recycling of waste water.
Solid waste : 
Collection and disposal in rural and urban contexts, management of long-term ill-effects.
Environmental pollution:
Sustainable development. Radioactive wastes and disposal, Environmental impact assessment for thermal power plants, mines, river valley projects, Air pollution, Pollution control acts.



UPSC IFS Chemical Engineering Syllabus

UPSC IFS Chemical Engineering Syllabus Paper – I Section A (a) Fluid and Particle Dynamics Viscosity of fluids. Laminar and turbulent flows. Equation of continuity and Navier-Stokes equition-Bernoulli's theorem. Flow meters. Fluid drag and pressure drop due to friction, Reynold's…
UPSC IFS Chemical Engineering Syllabus

Paper – I
Section A
(a) Fluid and Particle Dynamics Viscosity of fluids. Laminar and turbulent flows. Equation of continuity and Navier-Stokes equition-Bernoulli's theorem. Flow meters. Fluid drag and pressure drop due to friction,
Reynold's Number and friction factor – effect of pipe roughness. Economic pipe diameter. Pumps, water, air/steam jet ejectors, compressors, blowers and fans. Agitation and mixing of liquids. Mixing of solids and pastes. Crushing and Grinding – principles and equipment. Rittinger’s and Bond’s laws. Filtration and filtration equipment. Fluid-particle
mechanics – free and hindered settling. Fluidisation and minimum fluidization velocity,concepts of compressible and incompressible flow. Transport of Solids.
(b) Mass Transfer
Molecular diffusion coefficients, First and second law and diffusion, mass transfer coefficients, film and penetration theories of mass transfer. Distillation, simple distillation, relative volatility, fractional distillation, plate and packed columns for distillation. Calculation of theoretical number of plates. Liquid-liquid equilibria. Extraction- theory and practice; Design of gas-absorption columns. Drying. Humidification, dehumidification. Crystallisation. Design of equipment.
(c) Heat Taransfer Conduction, thermal conductivity, extended surface heat transfer. Convection – free and forced. Heat transfer coefficients – Nusselt Number. LMTD and effectiveness. NTU methods for the design of Double Pipe and Shell & Tube Heat Exchangers. Analogy between heat and momentum transfer. Boiling and condensation heat transfer. Single
and multiple-effect evaporators. Rediation – Stefan-Boltzman Law, emissivity and absorptivity. Calculation of heat load of a furnace. Solar heaters.
Section B
(d) Noval Separation Processes Equilibrium separation processes – ion-exchange, osmosis, electro-dialysis, reverse osmosis, ultra-filtration and other membrane processes. Molecular distillation. super critical fluid extraction.
(e) Process Equipment Design Fractors affecting vessel design criteria – Cost considerations. Design of storage vessels- vertical, horizontal spherical, underground tanks for atmospheric and higher pressure.
Design of closures flat and eliptical head. Design of supports. Materials of construction- characteristics and selection.
(f) Process Dynamics and Control Measuring instruments for process variables like level, pressure, flow, temperature pH and concentration with indication in visual/pneumatic/analog/digital signal forms. Control
variable, manipulative variable and load variables. Linear control theory-Laplace, transforms. PID controllers. Block diagram represenation transient and frequency response, stability of closed loop system. Advanced control strategies. Computer based process control.
Paper – II
Section A
(a) Material and Energy Balances Material and energy balance calculations in processes with recycle/bypass/purge. Combustion of solid/liquid/gaseous fuels, stoichiometric relationships and excess air requirements. Adiabatic flame temperature.
(b) Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics Laws of thermodynamics. PVT relationships for pure components and mixtures. Energy functions and inter-relationships – Maxwell’s relations. Fugacity, activity and chemical potential. Vapour-liquid equilibria, for ideal/non-ideal, single and multi component systems. eriteria for chemical reaction equilibrium, equilibrium constant and equillibrium conversions. Thermodynamic cycles – refrigeration and power.
(c) Chemical Reaction Engineering : Batch reactors – kinetics of homogeneous reactions and interpretation of kinetic data. Ideal flow reactors – CSTR, plug flow reactors and their perofrmance equations. Temperature effects and run-away reactions. Heterogeneous reactions – catalytic and non-catalytic and gas-solid and gas-liquid reactions. Intrinsic kinetics and global rate concept. Importance of interphase and intraparticle mass transfer on performance. Effectiveness factor. Isothermal and non-isothermal reactors and reactor stability.
Section B
(d) Chemical Technology Natural organic products – Wood and wood-based chemicals, pulp and paper, Agro industries – sugar, Edible oils extraction (including tree based seeds), Soaps and detergents. Essential oils – Biomass gasification (including biogas). Coal and coal chemical. Petroleium and Natural gas-Petroleum refining (Atomospheric distillation/ cracking/ reforming) – Petrochemical industries – Polyethylenes (LDPE/ HDPE/ LLDPE), Polyvinyl Chloride, Polystyrene. Ammonia manufacture. Cement and lime industries. Paints and varnishes. Glass and ceremics. Fermentation – alcohol and antibiotics.
(e) Environmental Engineering and Safety Ecology and Environment. Sources of pollutants in air and water. Green house effect, ozone layer depletion, acid rain. Micrometeorology and dispersion of pollutants in
environment. Measurement techniques of pollutant levels and their control strategies. Solid wastes, their hazards and their disposal techniques. Design and performance analysis of pollution control equipment. Fire and explosion hazards rating – HAZOP and HAZAN. Emergency planning, disaster management. Environmental legislations – water, air environment protection Acts. Forest (Conservation) Act.
(f) Process Engineering Economics : Fixed and working capital requirement for a process industry and estimation methods. Cost estimation and comparison of alternatives. Net present value by discounted cash
flow. Pay back analysis. IRR, Depreciation, taxes and insurance. Break-even point analysis. Project scheduling – PERT and CPM. Profit and loss account, balance sheet and financial statement. Plant location and plant layout including piping.


UPSC IFS Chemistry Syllabus

UPSC IFS Chemistry Syllabus Paper – I 1. Atomic structure Quantum theory, Heisenberg's uncertainity principle, Schrodinger wave equation (time independent). Interpretation of wave function, particle in one-dimensional box, quantum numbers, hydrogen atom wave functions. Shapes of s, p and d…
UPSC IFS Chemistry Syllabus

Paper – I

1. Atomic structure
Quantum theory, Heisenberg’s uncertainity principle, Schrodinger wave equation (time independent). Interpretation of wave function, particle in one-dimensional box, quantum numbers, hydrogen atom wave functions. Shapes of s, p and d orbitals.
2. Chemical bonding
Ionic bond, characteristics of ionic compounds, factors affecting stability of ionic compounds, lattice energy, Born-Haber cycle; covalent bond and its general characteristics, polarities of bonds in molecules and their dipole moments. Valence bond theory, concept of resonance and resonance energy. Molecular orbital theory (LCAO method); bonding in homonuclear molecules: H+2, H2 to Ne2, NO, CO, HF, CN, CN-,BeH2 and CO2. Comparision of valence bond and molecular oribtal theories, bond order,
bond strength and bond length.
3. Solid state
Forms of solids, law of constancy of interfacial angles, crystal systems and crystal classes (crystallographic groups). Designation of crystal faces, lattice structures and unit cell. Laws of rational indices. Bragg's law. X-ray diffraction by crystals. Close packing, radious ratio rules, calculation of some limiting radius ratio values. Structures of NaCl, ZnS, CsCl, CaF2, CdI2 and rutile. Imperfections in crystals, stoichiometric and nonstoichiometric defects, impurity defects, semi-conductors. Elementary study of liquid crystals.
4. The gaseous state Equation of state for real gases, intermolecular interactions, liquifictaion of gases and critical phenomena, Maxwell’s distribution of speeds, intermolecular collisions, collisions on the wall and effusion.
5. Thermodynamics and statistical thermodynamics Thermodynamic systems, states and processes, work, heat and internal energy; first law
of thermodynamics, work done on the systems and heat absorbed in different types of processes; calorimetry, energy and enthalpy changes in various processes and their temperature dependence. Second law of thermodynamics; entropy as a state function, entropy changes in various process, entropy reversibility and irreversibility, Free energy functions; criteria for equilibrium, relation between equilibrium constant and
thermodynamic quantities; Nernst heat theorem and third law of thermodynamics. Micro and macro states; canonical ensemble and canonical partition function; electronic, rotational and vibrational partition functions and thermodynamic quantities; chemical equilibrium in ideal gas reactions.
6. Phase equilibria and solutions Phase equilibria in pure substances; Clausius-Clapeyron equation; phase diagram for a pure substance; phase equilibria in binary systems, partially miscible liquids upper and
lower critical solution temperatures; partial molar quantities, their significance and determination; excess thermodynamic functions and their determination.

7. Electrochemistry Debye-Huckel theory of strong electrolytes and Debye-Huckel limiting Law for various equilibrium and transport properties. Galvanic cells, concentration cells; electrochemical series, measurement of e.m.f. of cells and its applications fuel cells and batteries. Processes at electrodes; double layer at the interface; rate of charge transfer, current density; overpotential; electroanalytical techniques voltametry, polarography, amperometry, cyclic-voltametry, ion selective electrodes and their use.
8. Chemical kinetics Concentration dependence of rate of reaction; defferential and integral rate equations for zeroth, first, second and fractional order reactions. Rate equations involving reverse,
parallel, consecutive and chain reactions; effect of temperature and pressure on rate constant. Study of fast reactions by stop-flow and relaxation methods. Collisions and transition state theories.

9. Photochemistry
Absorption of light; decay of excited state by different routes; photochemical reactions between hydrogen and halogens and their quantum yields.
10. Surface phenomena and catalysis Adsorption from gages and solutions on solid adsorbents, adsorption isotherms–Langmuir and B.E.T. isotherms; determination of surface area, characteristics and mechanism of reaction on heterogeneous catalysts.
11. Bio-inorganic chemistry Metal ions in biological systems and their role in ion-transport across the membranes (molecular mechanism), ionophores, photosynthesisa PSI, PSII; nitrogen fixation, oxygen-uptake proteins, cytochromes and ferredoxins.
12. Coordination chemistry
(a) Electronic configurations; introduction to theories of bonding in transition metal complexes. Valence bond theory, crystal field theory and its modifications; applications of theories in the explanation of magnetism and electronic spactra of metal complexes.
(b) Isomerism in coordination compounds. IUPAC nomenclature of coordination compounds; stereochemistry of complexes with 4 and 6 coordination numbers; chelate effect and polynuclear complexes; trans effect and its theories; kinetics of substitution reactions in square-planer complexes; thermodynamic and kinetic stability of complexes.
(c) Synthesis and structures of metal carbonyls; carboxylate anions, carbonyl hydrides and metal nitrosyl compounds.
(d) Complexes with aromatic systems, synthesis, structure and bonding in metal olefin complexes, alkyne complexes and cyclopentadienyl complexes; coordinative unsaturation, oxidative addition reactions, insertion reactions, fluxional molecules and their characterization. Compounds with metal-metal bonds and metal atom clusters.
13. General chemistry of block elements Lanthanides and actinides; separation, oxidation states, magnetic and spectral properties; lanthanide contraction.
14. Non-Aqueous Solvents Reactions in liquid NH3, HF, SO2 and H2 SO4. Failure of solvent system concept, coordination model of non-aqueous solvents. Some highly acidic media, fluorosulphuric acid and super acids.
Paper – II
1. Delocalised covalent bonding :
 Aromaticity, anti-aromaticity; annulenes, azulenes, tropolones, kekulene, fulvenes, sydnones.
2. (a) Reaction mechanisms :
General methods (both kinetic and non-kinetic) of study of mechanism or organic reactions illustrated by examples–use of isotopes, cross-over experiment, intermediate trapping, stereochemistry; energy diagrams of simple organic reactionsa transition states and intermediates; energy of activation; thermodynamic control and kinetic control of reactions.
(b) Reactive intermediates :
 Generation, geometry, stability and reactions of carbonium and carbanium ions, carbanions, free radicals, carbenes, benzynes and niternes.
(c) Substitution reactions :
 SN1, SN2, SNi, SN1’, SN2’, SNi’ and SRN1 mechanisms;
neighbouring group participation; electrophilic and nucleophilic reactions of aromatic compound including simple heterocyclic compounds– pyrrole,
thiophene, indole.
(d) Elimination reactions :
 E1, E2 and E1cb mechanisms; orientation in E2 reactions–Saytzeff and
Hoffmann; pyrolytic syn elimination acetate pyrolysis, Chugaev and Cope
(e) Addition reactions :
 Electrophilic addition to C=C and C=C; nucleophilic addition to C=O, C=N,
conjugated olefins and carbonyls.
(f) Rearrangements :
 Pinacol-pinacolune, Hoffmann, Beckmann, Baeyer Villiger, Favorskii, Fries,
Claisen, Cope, Stevens and Wagner-Meerwein rearrangements.
3. Pericyclic reactions :
 Classification and examples; Woodward-Hoffmann rules—clectrocyclic
reactions, cycloaddition reactions [2+2 and 4+2] and sigmatropic shifts [1, 3; 3, 3 and 1, 5] FMO approach.
4. Chemistry and mechanism of reactions :

 Aldol condensation (including directed aldol condensation), Claisen
condensation, Dieckmann, Perkin, Knoevenagel, Witting, Clemmensen, Wolff- Kishner, Cannizzaro and von Richter reactions; Stobbe, benzoin and acyloin condensations; Fischer indole synthesis, Skraup synthesis, Bischler-Napieralski, Sandmeyer, Reimer-Tiemann and Reformatsky reactions.
5. Polymeric Systems
(a) Physical chemistry of polymers : Polymer solutions and their thermodynamic properties; number and weight average molecular weights of polymers. Determination of molecular weights by sedimentation, light scattering, osmotic pressure, viscosity, end group analysis methods.
(b) Preparation and properties of polymers : Organic polymers polyethylene, polystyrene, polyvinyl chloride, Teflon, nylon, terylene, synthetic and natural rubber. Inorganic polymers–phosphonitrilic halides, borazines, silicones and silicates.
(c) Biopolymers : Basic bonding in proteins, DNA and RNA.
6. Synthetic uses of reagents : OsO4, HIO4, CrO3, Pb(OAc)4, SeO2, NBS, B2H6, Na- Liquid NH3, LiAlH4, NaBH4 n-BuLi, MCPBA.
7. Photochemistry : Photochemical reactions of simple organic compounds, excited and ground states, singlet and triplet states, Norrish-Type I and Type II reactions.
8. Principles of spectroscopy and applications in structure elucidation :
(a) Rotational spectra diatomic molecules; isotopic substitution and rotational constants.
(b) Vibrational spectra diatomic molecules, linear triatomic molecules, specific frequencies of functional groups in polyatomic molecules.
(c) Electronic spectra : Singlet and triplet states; application to conjugated double bonds and conjugated carbonyls Woodward-Fieser rules.
(d) Nuclear magnetic resonance : Isochronous and anisochronous protons; chemical shift and coupling constants; Application of 1H NMR to simple organic molecules.
(e) Mass spectra : Parent peak, base peak, daugther peak, metastable peak,
fragmentation of simple organic molecules; cleavage, McLafferty rearrangement.
(f) Electron spin resonance : Inorganic complexes and free radicals.